Polyphenols (Phenolic Acid) | Antioxidant Benefits & Effects on our body
Research in progress
About Polyphenol, Phenolic acids:
A phenolic acid is a sort of phytochemical known as a polyphenol. Phenolic acids are found in an assortment of plant-based nourishments such as the seeds and skins of products of the soil leaves of vegetables contain the most noteworthy concentration. Phenolic acids are promptly consumed through the dividers of your intestinal tract, and they might be valuable to your wellbeing since they fill in as cancer prevention agents that counteract cell harm because of free-radical oxidation responses. The Polyphenol phenolic acid supplements may likewise work as anti inflammatory in the human body. It strongly supports a role for polyphenols in the prevention of degenerative diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and cancers. The antioxidant properties of polyphenols have been widely studied, but it has become clear that the mechanisms of action of polyphenols go beyond the modulation of oxidative stress. Polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in the diet. Their total dietary intake could be as high as 1 g/d, which is much higher than that of all other classes of phytochemicals and known dietary antioxidants.
Ranking list of top foods list with Polyphenols (Phenolic Acid)
Different Types of Polyphenols
Polyphenols are four main categories, with additional sub-groupings. based on the number of phenol rings they contain, and on the basis of structural elements in their construction.
As a general rule, foods contain complex mixtures of polyphenols, with higher levels found in the outer layers of the plants than the inner parts.
1- Flavonoids, have Strong both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, found in fruits, vegetables, legumes, red wine, and green tea
2- Stilbenes, found in red wine and peanuts (resveratrol is the most well known)
3- Lignans, found in seeds like flax, legumes, cereals, grains, fruits, algae, and certain vegetables
4- Phenolic acids
Hydroxybenzoic acids, found in tea
Hydroxycinnamic acids found in cinnamon of course but also in coffee, blueberries, kiwis, plums, apples, and cherries
Polyphenols are usually associated with/ improving:
- Fighting cancer cells and inhibiting angiogenesis (the growth of blood vessels that feed a tumor)
- Protecting your skin against ultraviolet radiation
- Fighting free radicals
- reducing the appearance of aging
- Promoting brain health
- protecting against dementia
- Reducing inflammation
- Supporting normal blood sugar levels
- Protecting your cardiovascular system
- Promoting normal blood pressure
Polyphenols work effective for :
Symptoms of ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
Eye Disorders AMD
Inflammatory and pain
Autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis)
High cholesterol (LDL bad cholesterol)
Antioxidants effects & Benefits of Phenolic acids:
• Anti-Diabetic Effects of Polyphenols
Numerous studies report the antidiabetic effects of polyphenols. Tea catechins have been investigated for their anti-diabetic potential.63,64 Polyphenols may affect glycemia through different mechanisms, including the inhibition of glucose absorption in the gut or of its uptake by peripheral tissues.Onion polyphenols, especially quercetin is known to possess strong anti diabetic activity. A recent study shows that quercetin has ability to protect the alterations in diabetic patients during oxidative stress. Quercetin significantly protected the lipid peroxidation and inhibition antioxidant system in diabetics. (source)
• Used as Anti bacterial:
Bacteria are collection of single cell microorganisms. Most microorganisms are innocuous in people because of the defensive impacts of the immune framework. Notwithstanding, a few microscopic organisms are perilous and can bring about irresistible maladies. Luckily, phenol acids are effective antibacterials and can help guard you from perilous microorganisms. Temporary reviews recommend that phenolic acid may likewise have antibacterial properties however additional confirmation is required before this can be affirmed. (source)
• Anti-Aging Effect
Aging is the accumulation process of diverse detrimental changes in the cells and tissues with advancing age, resulting in an increase in the risks of disease and death. Among many theories purposed for the explaining the mechanism of aging, free radical/oxidative stress theory is one of the most accepted one. Antioxidant capacity of the plasma is related to dietary intake of antioxidants; it has been found that the intake of antioxidant rich diet is effective in reducing the deleterious effects of aging and behavior. Several researches suggest that the combination of antioxidant/anti-inflammatory polyphenolic compounds found in fruits and vegetables may show efficacy as anti-aging compounds. Subset of the flavonoids known as anthocyanins, are particularly abundant in brightly colored fruits such as berry fruits and concord grapes and grape seeds. (source)
• Reduces inflammation:
Inflammation is the body’s method for managing disease, harm, aggravation or stress. It prompts warm, torment, redness or swelling around the influenced body part. Most inflammation is sure as it demonstrates that the body has recognized a risk and is endeavoring to manage the issue. In any case, some inflammation is superfluous and harms the body’s cells when there is no contamination, damage, bothering or worry to manage. Luckily, the phenolic acids can help monitor pointless inflammation. The strong antioxidants of phenolic acids are powerful against inflammation. (source)
• Antioxidant effects of Polyphenol, phenolic acid on cancer:
Antioxidants are substances that protect a human body’s cells from free radicals. Free radicals are destructive substances that are discharged into the body amid oxygen based responses. They have been connected with serious disease such as cancer, diabetes, a weak invulnerable system along with noticeable indications of maturing. Luckily, the greater parts of the phenolic acids aside from “capsaicin” are intense cancer prevention agents that can guard you from the antagonistic impacts related with free radicals. Several mechanisms of action have been identified for chemoprevention effect of polyphenols, these include estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity, antiproliferation, induction of cell cycle arrest or apoptosis, prevention of oxidation, induction of detoxification enzymes, regulation of the host immune system, anti-inflammatory activity and changes in cellular signaling
• Neuro-Protective Effects and Mental health boosters:
The phenolic acids have a considerable measure of potential with regards to boosting the emotional wellbeing. Early research proposes that phenolic acids may go about as an energizer and furthermore it prevents the Alzheimer’s disease. What’s more, they may likewise ensure against Alzheimer’s malady while vanillin may shield the cerebrum cells from harm, prevents Alzheimer’s infection and Parkinson’s ailment. In any case, additionally studies are required before the impacts of the phenolic acids on brain health are affirmed. Oxidative stress and damage to brain macromolecules is an important process in neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most common occurring neurodisorder affecting up to 18 million people worldwide. Because polyphenols are highly antioxidative in nature, their consumption may provide protection in neurological diseases. It was observed that the people drinking three to four glasses of wine (vines that have Polyphenol contents) per day had 80% decreased incidence of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease compared to those who drank less or did not drink at all. (source)
Polyphenol Supplements interactions
These mostly happen with supplements not the foods containing Polyphenol
- Iron depletion in populations of people who have marginal iron stores
- Interference with thyroid hormone metabolism
- Interactions with pharmaceutical drugs, enhancing their biologic effects
References and sources for Polyphenols online:
Published papers and articles and References for Polyphenols
1. Scalbert A, Manach C, Morand C, Remesy C. Dietary polyphenols and the prevention of diseases. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2005;45:287–306. [PubMed]
2. Spencer JP, Abd El Mohsen MM, Minihane AM, Mathers JC. Biomarkers of the intake of dietary polyphenols: strengths, limitations and application in nutrition research. Br J Nutr. 2008;99:12–22. [PubMed]
3. Beckman CH. Phenolic-storing cells: keys to programmed cell death and periderm formation in wilt disease resistance and in general defence responses in plants? Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 2000;57:101–110.
4. Graf BA, Milbury PE, Blumberg JB. Flavonols, flavonones, flavanones and human health: Epidemological evidence. J Med Food. 2005;8:281–290. [PubMed]
5. Arts ICW, Hollman PCH. Polyphenols and disease risk in epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81:317–325. [PubMed]
6. Kondratyuk TP, Pezzuto JM. Natural Product Polyphenols of Relevance to Human Health. Pharm Biol. 2004;42:46–63.
7. Shahidi F, Naczk M. Food phenolics, sources, chemistry, effects, applications. Lancaster, PA: Technomic Publishing Co Inc; 1995.
8. de Groot H, Rauen U. Tissue injury by reactive oxygen species and the protective effects of flavonoids. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 1998;12:249–255. [PubMed]
9. Adlercreutz H, Mazur W. Phyto-oestrogens and Western diseases. Ann Med. 1997;29:95–120. [PubMed]
10. Wink M. Compartmentation of secondary metabolites and xenobiotics in plant vacuoles. Adv Bot Res. 1997;25:141–169.
11. Simon BF, Perez-Ilzarbe J, Hernandez T, Gomez-Cordoves C, Estrella I. Importance of phenolic compounds for the characterization of fruit juices. J Agric Food Sci. 1992;40:1531–1535.
12. Manach C, Scalbert A, Morand C, Rémésy C, Jimenez L. Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:727–747. [PubMed]
13. Parr AJ, Bolwell GP. Phenols in the plant and in man. The potential for possible nutritional enhancement of the diet by modifying the phenol content or profile. J Agric Food Chem. 2000;80:985–1012.
14. Sosulski FW, Krygier K, Hogge L. Importance of phenolic compounds for the characterization of fruit juices. J Agric Food Chem. 1982;30:337–340.
15. Price KR, Bacon JR, Rhodes MJC. Effect of storage and domestic processing on the content and composition of flavonol glucosides in onion (Allium cepa) J Agric Food Chem. 1997;45:938–942.
16. Crozier A, Lean MEJ, McDonald MS, Black C. Quantitative analysis of the flavonoid content of commercial tomatoes, onions, lettuce, and celery. J Agric Food Chem. 1997;45:590–595.
17. D’Archivio M, Filesi C, Benedetto RD, Gargiulo R, Giovannini C, Masella R. Polyphenols, dietary sources and bioavailability. Ann Ist Super Sanità 2007;43:348–361. [PubMed]
18. Day AJ, Williamson G. Biomarkers for exposure to dietary flavonoids: a review of the current evidence for identification of quercetin glycosides in plasma. Br J Nutr. 2001;86:S105–S110. [PubMed]
19. Setchell KD, Faughnan MS, Avades T, Zimmer-Nechemias L, Brown NM, et al. Comparing the pharmacokinetics of daidzein and genistein with the use of 13C-labeled tracers in premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:411–419. [PubMed]
20. Duthie GG, Pedersen MW, Gardner PT, Morrice PC, Jenkinson AM, McPhail DB, Steele GM. The effect of whisky and wine consumption on total phenol content and antioxidant capacity of plasma from healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1998;52:733–736. [PubMed]
21. Young JF, Nielsen SE, Haraldsdóttir J, Daneshvar B, Lauridsen ST, Knuthsen P, Crozier A, Sandström B, Dragsted LO. Effect of fruit juice intake on urinary quercetin excretion and biomarkers of antioxidative status. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:87–94. [PubMed]
22. Gee JM, DuPont MS, Rhodes MJ, Johnson IT. Quercetin glucosides interact with the intestinal glucose transport pathway. Free Radic Biol Med. 1998;25:19–25. [PubMed]
23. Crespy V, Morand C, Besson C, Manach C, Demigne C, Remesy C. Quercetin, but not its glycosides, is absorbed from the rat stomach. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:618–621. [PubMed]
24. Passamonti S, Vrhovsek U, Vanzo A, Mattivi F. Fast access of some grape pigments to the brain. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:7029–7034. [PubMed]
25. Halliwell B, Zhao K, Whiteman M. The gastrointestinal tract: a major site of antioxidant action? Free Radic Res. 2000;33:819–830. [PubMed]
26. Clifford MN. Chlorogenic acids and other cinnamates. Nature, occurence, dietary burden, absorption and metabolism. J Sci Food Agric. 2000;80:1033–1043.
27. Olthof MR, Hollman PC, Katan MB. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans. J Nutr. 2001;131:66–71. [PubMed]
28. Kuhnau J. The flavonoids. A class of semi-essential food components: their role in human nutrition. World Rev Nutr Diet. 1976;24:117–191. [PubMed]
29. Lee MJ, Maliakal P, Chen L, Meng X, Bondoc FY, et al. Pharmacokinetics of tea catechins after ingestion of green tea and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate by humans: formation of different metabolites and individual variability. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11:1025–1032. [PubMed]
30. Falany CN. Enzymology of human cytosolic sulfotransferases. Faseb J. 1997;11:206–216. [PubMed]
31. Spencer JP, Chowrimootoo G, Choudhury R, Debnam ES, Srai SK, Rice-Evans C. The small intestine can both absorb and glucuronidate luminal flavonoids. FEBS Lett. 1999;458:224–230. [PubMed]
32. Hollman PC, Tijburg LB, Yang CS. Bioavailability of flavonoids from tea. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1997;37:719–738. [PubMed]
33. Dangles O, Dufour C, Manach C, Morand C, Remesy C. Binding of flavonoids to plasma proteins. Methods Enzymol. 2001;335:319–333. [PubMed]
34. Dufour C, Loonis M, Dangles O. Inhibition of the peroxidation of linoleic acid by the flavonoid quercetin within their complex with human serum albumin. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007;43:241–252. [PubMed]
35. Vitrac X, Moni JP, Vercauteren J, Deffieux G, Mérillon JM. Direct liquid chromatography analysis of resveratrol derivatives and flavanonols in wines with absorbance and fluorescence detection. Anal Chim Acta. 2002;458:103–110.
36. Luqman S, Rizvi SI. Protection of lipid peroxidation and carbonyl formation in proteins by capsaicin in human erythrocytes subjected to oxidative stress. Phytother Res. 2006;20:303–306. [PubMed]
37. Pandey KB, Mishra N, Rizvi SI. Protective role of myricetin on markers of oxidative stress in human erythrocytes subjected to oxidative stress. Nat Prod Commun. 2009;4:221–226. [PubMed]
38. Pandey KB, Rizvi SI. Protective effect of resveratrol on markers of oxidative stress in human erythrocytes subjected to in vitro oxidative insult. Phytother Res. 2009. In press. [PubMed]
39. Renaud S, de Lorgeril M. Wine, alcohol, platelets, and the French paradox for coronary heart disease. Lancet. 1992;339:1523–1526. [PubMed]