Exercise and Aging | Intense exercise can stop or slow down Aging
Before we start….. Exercise is the Most important thing we can do against aging. read more.
How exercise slows down aging?
- Exercise Increases Brain plasticity and memory that leads to better learning
- Exercise Increases brain BDNF
- Exercise Boosts and improves cardiovascular system
- Exercise creates inflammations that makes body boost immune system
- Exercise triggers body production of growth Hormone
- Exercise triggers body sweat system
- Exercise fights obesity
- Triggers production of new brain cells
Research in progress
Main question on exercise-aging relation:
Before going into details of how exercise can actually improve your body we should have and understand some questions:
- Why do we HAVE TO exercise?
- Do you know what it means that cells in our body and specially our brain Age?
- Does our body make new cells everywhere? even in brain?
- When does aging stats?
- Do you know Why our body operates the way it does and how can it affect our modern lifestyle?
- Does aging happen in brain or skin or all of our body?
- If we are perceiving the world in our brain shouldn’t we really care about protecting it from getting old?
First Aging starts From 15 to 20 so take this seriously. If you are in your 20s, you are already there.
We are based on our needs. All body structure and how it functions is designed or evolved based on its needs. if we did not need a hand we would not have one or hair or nose. The structure of our body is designed to get stronger and grow under pressure of need. fear is one of the strongest tools in nature that makes animals shape the way they are.
Telomeres that are the tiny caps found on the end of DNA strands, like plastic aglets on shoelaces. They are believed to protect the DNA from damage during cell division and replication. As a cell ages, its telomeres naturally shorten and fray. our modern lifestyle expedites that things like smoking or bad foods or obesity all contribute hugely to expediting that process.
In our original lifestyle we used to run to hunt or escape, for food and staying alive and keep living. our cells and DNA knows why they are shaped the way they are. Actually exercise and intense physical activity has been an integral part of our lives in the past. and our structure is shaped based on that.
If we dont use part of our body it starts weakening to its minimum. Imaging your muscles if you dont use a specific muscle it weakens even if you are an athlete if you stop the pressure after a while you see that because your muscle is not under pressure it loosens up and weakens. after one or two years you are nothing like your old body and that strong part is the weakest. you did nothing and that is the exact problem. doing nothing with your body for your DNA means you dont need it. so it gets rid of it. It can not get rid of it in one generation but weakens it as its possible. and eventually gets rid of it if you pass enough generations.
Remember it should be intense and/or long. The high intensity and long time is what makes the difference and makes your body to fight aging.
High intensity exercise is a strong signal to all cells involved specially your brain to work and grow and get stronger.Also long time can do it in another way for sure a 40 min session is much better and more effective than a 10 min session. you body feels like its running out of resources and power. They are all feeling fear and that is what is running them forward. Because that is how our body made to survive if it feels loos for a long time it means aging and slow death.
Aging In our brain and memory vs exercise | Can you grow new brain cells?
The science of neurogenesis suggests it’s possible to create neurons that improve your memory and thinking skills.(source) For example in relation of AHN and exercise in a study Named: Physical exercise increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis in male rats provided it is aerobic and sustained done by Miriam S. Nokia, Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Finland. On Exercise and AHN it was found that: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a continuous process that contributes to a variety of adaptive behaviours, such as learning (for review, see Aimone et al. 2014). A well-demonstrated means of promoting AHN in rodents is aerobic exercise, namely running (van Praag et al. 1999). High-intensity interval training had a smaller than expected effect on AHN. Resistance training does not promote AHN.
In accordance with several previous reports on the beneficial effects of running on AHN and cognition in rodents (for a review, see Vivar et al. 2013), in our present study forced endurance training on a treadmill as well as voluntary running in a running wheel led to a higher number of immature adult-born hippocampal neurons compared with that observed in animals not engaged in aerobic exercise. Furthermore, we found that daily voluntary running on a running wheel increased AHN considerably more than 30 min of forced endurance training on a treadmill three times a week. The correlation between running distance and AHN might be explained by considering the consequences of running (in a more naturalistic setting). The further an individual travels, the more likely it is to encounter new environments and stimuli from which it must make sense rapidly.
Finally in the Conclusion it is mentioned that: Sustained aerobic exercise increases AHN and advances this field of study in several ways. First, we tested several different forms of physical exercise to study their effects on AHN. We also took advantage of a newly developed genetically heterogeneous contrasting rat model system that we selectively bred for low and high response to aerobic training to take into account genetic variation in training responsiveness. According to our findings, anaerobic resistance training does not affect AHN in the studied animals, despite its overall positive effects on physical fitness. Second, the effects of exercise on AHN depend, at least to some extent, on sustained aerobic activity, as HIT did not have statistically significant effect on AHN. Third, the highest numbers of adult-born hippocampal neurons were observed in rats selectively bred for a high response to aerobic exercise that ran voluntarily on running wheels. Thus, for all reasons combined, AHN is highest in animals born with a tendency for a higher response to exercise training ,engaging in a large amount of voluntary aerobic activity. (source)
Why and how physical activity promotes experience-induced brain plasticity is also another important study done by Gerd Kempermann , from Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden, German Research Foundation, Dresden, Germany.
In animals, most if not all aspects of cognition are inseparable from locomotion and physical activity. Exploration, spatial navigation, and most types of learning accessible in a rodent are based on its movement in the outer world. Search for food, shelter, and mates are physical activities, requiring mental input to be successful on both a phylogenetic and ontogenetic scale. Consequently, the fact that running induces neurogenesis will be less counterintuitive if one appreciates physical activity as a basis for cognition. An important question is, whether this association is preserved in humans. Physical activity would be an intrinsic behavior-based signal to the brain (and hippocampus) implying that the likelihood of cognitive challenge is increased. In addition, one could speculate that running long distances increases the chance to encounter new environments increasing the need for spatial orientation and memory like wild animals that need to find the way back to their safe shelter. (source)
Brain BDNF (Brain plasticity) and Exercise
What is brain plasticity? Neuroplasticity – or brain plasticity – is the ability of the brain to modify its connections or re-wire itself. Without this ability, any brain, not just the human brain, would be unable to develop from infancy through to adulthood or recover from brain injury.
What is BDNF? The BDNF gene provides instructions for making a protein found in the brain and spinal cord called brain-derived neurotrophic factor. This protein promotes the survival of nerve cells (neurons) by playing a role in the growth, maturation (differentiation), and maintenance of these cells. In the brain, the BDNF protein is active at the connections between nerve cells (synapses), where cell-to-cell communication occurs. The synapses can change and adapt over time in response to experience, a characteristic called synaptic plasticity. The BDNF protein helps regulate synaptic plasticity, which is important for learning and memory.
The BDNF protein is found in regions of the brain that control eating, drinking, and body weight; the protein likely contributes to the management of these functions.
How To Increase BDNF (Brain-Derived Neutrophic Factor)
Increase your BDNF , there are some specific ways this can be done. It should also be noted that many methods that increase BDNF simultaneously increase neurogenesis.
1. Intense Exercise
Yes, Intense Exercise is number 1. If you don’t exercise much, your brain may not be producing sufficient BDNF. To increase it, you’ll want to engage in an intense exercise; the greater the intensity, the more likely BDNF production will increase. It has also been suggested that the more frequently you engage in high intensity exercise, the greater the production. Most specifically, aerobic exercise within the 60% to 75% of your max heart rate should be maintained for approximately 30 minutes. Don’t expect a huge boost in BDNF after just one gym session.
(Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21282661 – http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21722657)
2. Intermittent Fasting or Caloric Restriction
3. Dietary modifications
4. Sunlight (Vitamin D)
6. Lose weight
7. Certain drugs
8. Social Enrichment
How exercise and aging muscles relations are?
Basically we have 4 main types of exercise:
Endurance, or aerobic, activities increase your breathing and heart rate. They keep your heart, lungs, and circulatory system healthy and improve your overall fitness. Building your endurance makes it easier to carry out many of your everyday activities.
Brisk walking or jogging
Yard work (mowing, raking, digging)
2. Strength exercises
Strength exercises make your muscles stronger. Even small increases in strength can make a big difference in your ability to stay independent and carry out everyday activities, such as climbing stairs and carrying groceries. These exercises also are called “strength training” or “resistance training.”
Using a resistance band
Using your own body weight
3. Balance exercises
Balance exercises help prevent falls, a common problem in older adults. Many lower-body strength exercises also will improve your balance.
Standing on one foot
4. Flexibility exercises
Flexibility exercises stretch your muscles and can help your body stay limber. Being flexible gives you more freedom of movement for other exercises as well as for your everyday activities.
Shoulder and upper arm stretch
Almost any amount and type of physical activity may slow aging deep within our cells, a new study finds. And middle age may be a critical time to get the process rolling, at least by one common measure of cell aging. But a recent study from Cell Metabolism discovered that certain forms of exercise may increase muscle mass and mitochondrial density, particularly with people 64 and over.Not surprisingly, resistance training increased muscle mass and strength for all subjects. And cardio HIIT (high intensity interval training) improved the age-related decline in mitochondria.
For those of us who don’t know every portion of our cells’ interiors, telomeres are tiny caps found on the end of DNA strands, like plastic aglets on shoelaces. They are believed to protect the DNA from damage during cell division and replication. As a cell ages, its telomeres naturally shorten and fray. But the process can be accelerated by obesity, smoking, insomnia, diabetes and other aspects of health and lifestyle as we have talked about in all of our articles. In those cases, the affected cells age prematurely.
Exercise may slow the fraying of telomeres. Past studies have found, for instance, that master athletes typically have longer telomeres than sedentary people of the same age, as do older women who frequently walk or engage in other fairly moderate exercise.
But those studies were relatively narrow, focusing mostly on elderly people who ran or walked. It remained unclear whether people of different ages who engaged in a variety of exercises would likewise show effects on their telomeres.
So for the new study, which was published this month in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, researchers from the University of Mississippi and University of California, San Francisco, decided to look more broadly at the interactions of exercise and telomeres among a wide swath of Americans.
Exercise And Ageing, Exercise Is The Key To Keep Your Body Young
Ageing is a natural part of life. Face it. As soon as you hit your twenties, you notice changes in your body that are clear signs of ageing. However, people age differently and you want to be one of those people who looks and feels younger than they actually are. You want to be as healthy and strong as you possibly can be so you can still enjoy life even in your later years.
Let’s take a look at how exercise can help you keep your body young.
As you get older, your heart muscle becomes less efficient. It works harder to pump the same amount of blood to your organs. Blood vessels also tend to lose their elasticity and hardened fatty deposits may make the supply of blood even harder. This can be avoided by eating a healthy diet with limited saturated fats, a lot of lean protein and vegetables. Consistent daily exercise will also go a long way in delaying the onset of such problems.
One of the features of a young body is its ability to move fluidly. As you age, your bones decrease in size and density. It is even said that you lose a total of 2 inches as you grow older. Less dense bones make them prone to fracture. Muscles, joints and tendons also generally lose strength and flexibility as you get older. When you regularly exercise, your body gets used to physical activity and tries to keep up. Include weight training in your exercise regiment to keep your bones strong and your joints fluid. Proper diet will also go a long way to helping with this.
Exercise the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Exercise causes a beneficial response in the brain and an increase of BDFN, which is a trophic factor which is linked to cognitive improvement and the alleviation of anxiety and depression. The levels of this protein have been found to increase after exercise. You may already have experienced this before when in an anxious state. Exercise seems to alleviate the anxiety and make you have clearer thoughts. As you get older, your mental sharpness decreases slowly. You can delay this through regular exercise from a young age.
As you get older, maintaining a healthy weight or losing weight becomes even more difficult. Given that most people tend to go into a sedentary lifestyle as they age, it may seem almost impossible. Your metabolism also slows down, meaning that you burn fewer calories. The best remedy for this is maintaining a consistent workout schedule consisting of strength and cardio workouts at least 3 times a week. This ill help you increase your ratio of lean muscle to fat. Being overweight naturally, makes you look and feel older than you actually are. You may feel like you are hurling around a heavy body everywhere you go.
Exercise and nutrition go hand in hand when considering slowing down the ageing process. One cannot do without the other.
Online Sources for exercise and aging:
Papers and references for exercise and aging:
Afzalpour ME, Chadorneshin HT, Foadoddini M & Eivari HA (2015). Comparing interval and continuous exercise training regimens on neurotrophic factors in rat brain. Physiol Behav 147, 78–83.
Aimone JB, Li Y, Lee SW, Clemenson GD, Deng W & Gage FH (2014). Regulation and function of adult neurogenesis: from genes to cognition. Physiol Rev 94, 991–1026.
Allen DM, van Praag H, Ray J, Weaver Z, Winrow CJ, Carter TA, Braquet R, Harrington E, Ried T, Brown KD, Gage FH & Barlow C (2001). Ataxia telangiectasia mutated is essential during adult neurogenesis. Genes Dev 15, 554–566.
Bednarczyk MR, Aumont A, Decary S, Bergeron R & Fernandes KJ (2009). Prolonged voluntary wheel-running stimulates neural precursors in the hippocampus and forebrain of adult CD1 mice. Hippocampus 19, 913–927.
Biedermann SV, Fuss J, Steinle J, Auer MK, Dormann C, Falfán-Melgoza C, Ende G, Gass P & Weber-Fahr W (2014). The hippocampus and exercise: histological correlates of MR-detected volume changes. Brain Struct Funct doi: 10.1007/s00429-014-0976-5
Bouchard C, Blair SN, Church TS, Earnest CP, Hagberg JM, Hakkinen K, Jenkins NT, Karavirta L, Kraus WE, Leon AS, Rao DC, Sarzynski MA, Skinner JS, Slentz CA & Rankinen T (2012). Adverse metabolic response to regular exercise: is it a rare or common occurrence? PLoS One 7, e37887.
Bouchard C & Rankinen T (2001). Individual differences in response to regular physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33, S446–S451; discussion S452–S453.
Cameron HA & McKay RD (2001). Adult neurogenesis produces a large pool of new granule cells in the dentate gyrus. J Comp Neurol 435, 406–417.
Carro E, Nuñez A, Busiguina S & Torres-Aleman I (2000). Circulating insulin-like growth factor I mediates effects of exercise on the brain. J Neurosci 20, 2926–2933.
Cassilhas RC, Lee KS, Fernandes J, Oliveira MG, Tufik S, Meeusen R & de Mello MT (2012a). Spatial memory is improved by aerobic and resistance exercise through divergent molecular mechanisms. Neuroscience 202, 309–317.
Cassilhas RC, Lee KS, Venancio DP, Oliveira MG, Tufik S & de Mello MT (2012b). Resistance exercise improves hippocampus-dependent memory. Braz J Med Biol Res 45, 1215–1220.
Castilla-Ortega E, Rosell-Valle C, Pedraza C, Rodríguez de Fonseca F, Estivill-Torrús G & Santin LJ (2014). Voluntary exercise followed by chronic stress strikingly increases mature adult-born hippocampal neurons and prevents stress-induced deficits in ‘what–when–where’ memory. Neurobiol Learn Mem 109, 62–73.
Chae CH, Jung SL, An SH, Park BY, Kim TW, Wang SW, Kim JH, Lee HC & Kim HT (2014). Swimming exercise stimulates neuro-genesis in the subventricular zone via increase in synapsin I and nerve growth factor levels. Biol Sport 31, 309–314.
Clelland CD, Choi M, Romberg C, Clemenson GD Jr, Fragniere A, Tyers P, Jessberger S, Saksida LM, Barker RA, Gage FH & Bussey TJ (2009). A functional role for adult hippocampal neurogenesis in spatial pattern separation. Science 325, 210–213.
Creer DJ, Romberg C, Saksida LM, van Praag H & Bussey TJ (2010). Running enhances spatial pattern separation in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107, 2367–2372.
Dalla C, Papachristos EB, Whetstone AS & Shors TJ (2009). Female rats learn trace memories better than male rats and consequently retain a greater proportion of new neurons in their hippocampi. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106, 2927–2932.
Erickson KI, Prakash RS, Voss MW, Chaddock L, Hu L, Morris KS, White SM, Wójcicki TR, McAuley E & Kramer AF (2009). Aerobic fitness is associated with hippocampal volume in elderly humans. Hippocampus 19, 1030–1039.
Erickson KI, Voss MW, Prakash RS, Basak C, Szabo A, Chaddock L, Kim JS, Heo S, Alves H, White SM, Wojcicki TR, Mailey E, Vieira VJ, Martin SA, Pence BD, Woods JA, McAuley E & Kramer AF (2011). Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108, 3017–3022.
Fardell JE, Vardy J, Shah JD & Johnston IN (2012). Cognitive impairments caused by oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy are ameliorated by physical activity. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 220, 183–193.
Farmer J, Zhao X, van Praag H, Wodtke K, Gage FH & Christie BR (2004). Effects of voluntary exercise on synaptic plasticity and gene expression in the dentate gyrus of adult male Sprague–Dawley rats in vivo. Neuroscience 124, 71–79.
Fischer TJ, Walker TL, Overall RW, Brandt MD & Kempermann G (2014). Acute effects of wheel running on adult hippocampal precursor cells in mice are not caused by changes in cell cycle length or S phase length. Front Neurosci 8, 314.
Gibala MJ, Little JP, Macdonald MJ & Hawley JA (2012). Physiological adaptations to low-volume, high-intensity interval training in health and disease. J Physiol 590, 1077–1084.
Gould E, Beylin A, Tanapat P, Reeves A & Shors TJ (1999). Learning enhances adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal formation. Nat Neurosci 2, 260–265.
Haram PM, Kemi OJ, Lee SJ, Bendheim MØ, Al-Share QY, Waldum HL, Gilligan LJ, Koch LG, Britton SL, Najjar SM & Wisløff U (2009). Aerobic interval training vs. continuous moderate exercise in the metabolic syndrome of rats artificially selected for low aerobic capacity. Cardiovasc Res 81, 723–732.
Hauser T, Klaus F, Lipp HP & Amrein I (2009). No effect of running and laboratory housing on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in wild caught long-tailed wood mouse. BMC Neurosci 10, 43.
Hornberger TA Jr & Farrar RP (2004). Physiological hypertrophy of the FHL muscle following 8 weeks of progressive resistance exercise in the rat. Can J Appl Physiol 29, 16–31.
Inoue K, Okamoto M, Shibato J, Lee MC, Matsui T, Rakwal R & Soya H (2015). Long-term mild, rather than intense, exercise enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis and greatly changes the transcriptomic profile of the hippocampus. PLoS One 10, e0128720.
Johnson RA, Rhodes JS, Jeffrey SL, Garland T Jr & Mitchell GS (2003). Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor but not neurotrophin-3 increases more in mice selected for increased voluntary wheel running. Neuroscience 121, 1–7.
Koch LG & Britton SL (2008). Aerobic metabolism underlies complexity and capacity. J Physiol 586, 83–95.
Koch LG & Britton SL (2001). Artificial selection for intrinsic aerobic endurance running capacity in rats. Physiol Genomics 5, 45–52.
PubMed | Web of Science® Times Cited: 177 | Check UMLinks for fulltext
Koch LG, Pollott GE & Britton SL (2013). Selectively bred rat model system for low and high response to exercise training. Physiol Genomics 45, 606–614.
Lee MC, Inoue K, Okamoto M, Liu YF, Matsui T, Yook JS & Soya H (2013). Voluntary resistance running induces increased hippocampal neurogenesis in rats comparable to load-free running. Neurosci Lett 537, 6–10.
Lessard SJ, Rivas DA, Alves-Wagner AB, Hirshman MF, Gallagher IJ, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Atkins R, Greenhaff PL, Qi NR, Gustafsson T, Fielding RA, Timmons JA, Britton SL, Koch LG & Goodyear LJ (2013). Resistance to aerobic exercise training causes metabolic dysfunction and reveals novel exercise-regulated signaling networks. Diabetes 62, 2717–2727.
Leuner B, Glasper ER & Gould E (2010). Sexual experience promotes adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus despite an initial elevation in stress hormones. PLoS One 5, e11597.
Li Y, Luikart BW, Birnbaum S, Chen J, Kwon CH, Kernie SG, Bassel-Duby R & Parada LF (2008). TrkB regulates hippocampal neurogenesis and governs sensitivity to antidepressive treatment. Neuron 59, 399–412.
Lucassen PJ, Oomen CA, Naninck EF, Fitzsimons CP, van Dam AM, Czeh B & Korosi A (2015). Regulation of adult neurogenesis and plasticity by (early) stress, glucocorticoids, and inflammation. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 7, a021303.
Marlatt MW, Potter MC, Lucassen PJ & van Praag H (2012). Running throughout middle-age improves memory function, hippocampal neurogenesis, and BDNF levels in female C57BL/6J mice. Dev Neurobiol 72, 943–952.
Marton O, Koltai E, Takeda M, Koch LG, Britton SL, Davies KJ, Boldogh I & Radak Z (2015). Mitochondrial biogenesis-associated factors underlie the magnitude of response to aerobic endurance training in rats. Pflugers Arch 467, 779–788.
Niwa A, Nishibori M, Hamasaki S, Kobori T, Liu K, Wake H, Mori S, Yoshino T & Takahashi H (2015). Voluntary exercise induces neurogenesis in the hypothalamus and ependymal lining of the third ventricle. Brain Struct Funct doi: 10.1007/s00429-015-0995-x
Nokia MS, Anderson ML & Shors TJ (2012). Chemotherapy disrupts learning, neurogenesis and theta activity in the adult brain. Eur J Neurosci 36, 3521–3530.
Novaes Gomes FG, Fernandes J, Vannucci Campos D, Cassilhas RC, Viana GM, D’Almeida V, de Moraes Rêgo MK, Buainain PI, Cavalheiro EA & Arida RM (2014). The beneficial effects of strength exercise on hippocampal cell proliferation and apoptotic signaling is impaired by anabolic androgenic steroids. Psychoneuroendocrinology 50, 106–117.
Okamoto M, Hojo Y, Inoue K, Matsui T, Kawato S, McEwen BS & Soya H (2012). Mild exercise increases dihydrotestosterone in hippocampus providing evidence for androgenic mediation of neurogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109, 13100–13105.
Okamoto M, Yamamura Y, Liu Y, Min-Chul L, Matsui T, Shima T, Soya M, Takahashi K, Soya S, McEwen BS & Soya H (2015). Hormetic effects by exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis with glucocorticoid signaling. Brain Plasticity 1, 149–158.
CrossRef | Check UMLinks for fulltext
Palmer TD, Willhoite AR & Gage FH (2000). Vascular niche for adult hippocampal neurogenesis. J Comp Neurol 425, 479–494.
Parihar VK, Hattiangady B, Kuruba R, Shuai B & Shetty AK (2011). Predictable chronic mild stress improves mood, hippocampal neurogenesis and memory. Mol Psychiatry 16, 171–183.
CrossRef | PubMed | Web of Science® Times Cited: 63 | Check UMLinks for fulltext
Pereira AC, Huddleston DE, Brickman AM, Sosunov AA, Hen R, McKhann GM, Sloan R, Gage FH, Brown TR & Small SA (2007). An in vivo correlate of exercise-induced neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104, 5638–5643.
Rothman SM & Mattson MP (2013). Activity-dependent, stress-responsive BDNF signaling and the quest for optimal brain health and resilience throughout the lifespan. Neuroscience 239, 228–240.
Sairanen M, Lucas G, Ernfors P, Castren M & Castren E (2005). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and antidepressant drugs have different but coordinated effects on neuronal turnover, proliferation, and survival in the adult dentate gyrus. J Neurosci 25, 1089–1094.
Scharfman H, Goodman J, Macleod A, Phani S, Antonelli C & Croll S (2005). Increased neurogenesis and the ectopic granule cells after intrahippocampal BDNF infusion in adult rats. Exp Neurol 192, 348–356.
Shors TJ, Anderson ML, Curlik DM Jr & Nokia MS (2012). Use it or lose it: how neurogenesis keeps the brain fit for learning. Behav Brain Res 227, 450–458.
Shors TJ, Miesegaes G, Beylin A, Zhao M, Rydel T & Gould E (2001). Neurogenesis in the adult is involved in the formation of trace memories. Nature 410, 372–376.
Sisson SB, Katzmarzyk PT, Earnest CP, Bouchard C, Blair SN & Church TS (2009). Volume of exercise and fitness nonresponse in sedentary, postmenopausal women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41, 539–545.
Sisti HM, Glass AL & Shors TJ (2007). Neurogenesis and the spacing effect: learning over time enhances memory and the survival of new neurons. Learn Mem 14, 368–375.
Snyder JS, Soumier A, Brewer M, Pickel J & Cameron HA (2011). Adult hippocampal neurogenesis buffers stress responses and depressive behaviour. Nature 476, 458–461.
Soya H, Nakamura T, Deocaris CC, Kimpara A, Iimura M, Fujikawa T, Chang H, McEwen BS & Nishijima T (2007). BDNF induction with mild exercise in the rat hippocampus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 358, 961–967.
Timmons JA (2011). Variability in training-induced skeletal muscle adaptation. J Appl Physiol 110, 846–853.
Trejo JL, Carro E & Torres-Aleman I (2001). Circulating insulin-like growth factor I mediates exercise-induced increases in the number of new neurons in the adult hippocampus. J Neurosci 21, 1628–1634.
van Praag H, Kempermann G & Gage FH (1999). Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus. Nat Neurosci 2, 266–270.
van Praag H, Shubert T, Zhao C & Gage FH (2005). Exercise enhances learning and hippocampal neurogenesis in aged mice. J Neurosci 25, 8680–8685.
Varma VR, Chuang Y, Harris GC, Tan EJ & Carlson MC (2015). Low-intensity daily walking activity is associated with hippocampal volume in older adults. Hippocampus 25, 605–615.
Vivar C, Potter MC & van Praag H (2013). All about running: synaptic plasticity, growth factors and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Curr Top Behav Neurosci 15, 189–210.
Winocur G, Wojtowicz JM, Huang J & Tannock IF (2014). Physical exercise prevents suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis and reduces cognitive impairment in chemotherapy-treated rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 231, 2311–2320.
Wisløff U, Bye A, Stølen T, Kemi OJ, Pollott GE, Pande M, McEachin RC, Britton SL & Koch LG (2015). Blunted cardiomyocyte remodeling response in exercise-resistant rats. J Am Coll Cardiol 65, 1378–1380.