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What is brain plasticity? What is Brain BDNF?

What is brain plasticity? What is  BDNF?

BRAIN BDNF (BRAIN PLASTICITY) AND EXERCISE

 

What is brain plasticity? Neuroplasticity – or brain plasticity – is the ability of the brain to modify its connections or re-wire itself. Without this ability, any brain, not just the human brain, would be unable to develop from infancy through to adulthood or recover from brain injury.

What is  BDNF?   The BDNF gene provides instructions for making a protein found in the brain and spinal cord called brain-derived neurotrophic factor. This protein promotes the survival of nerve cells (neurons) by playing a role in the growth, maturation (differentiation), and maintenance of these cells. In the brain, the BDNF protein is active at the connections between nerve cells (synapses), where cell-to-cell communication occurs. The synapses can change and adapt over time in response to experience, a characteristic called synaptic plasticity. The BDNF protein helps regulate synaptic plasticity, which is important for learning and memory.

The BDNF protein is found in regions of the brain that control eating, drinking, and body weight; the protein likely contributes to the management of these functions. read more about exercise and brain bdnf

 

Read more about antioxidants

 

 

Related questions:

What are antioxidants in green tea?

Green tea substance with antioxidant benefits?

Is all tea types the same in antioxidants?

The strongest tea in antioxidants?

Is green tea beneficial?

What are green tea health benefits?

 

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Read More about Anti aging

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Keywords: Green tea catechins, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial cells, platelets, proliferation, cardiovascular disease

CAN YOU GROW NEW BRAIN CELLS?

CAN YOU GROW NEW BRAIN CELLS?

 

The science of neurogenesis suggests it’s possible to create neurons that improve your memory and thinking skills.(source)  For example in relation of AHN and exercise in a study Named: Physical exercise increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis in male rats provided it is aerobic and sustained  done by Miriam S. Nokia, Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Finland. On Exercise and AHN it was found that: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a continuous process that contributes to a variety of adaptive behaviours, such as learning (for review, see Aimone et al. 2014). A well-demonstrated means of promoting AHN in rodents is aerobic exercise, namely running (van Praag et al. 1999). High-intensity interval training had a smaller than expected effect on AHN. Resistance training does not promote AHN. read more

 

Read more about antioxidants

Read More about Cancer

 

 

Related questions:

What are antioxidants in green tea?

Green tea substance with antioxidant benefits?

Is all tea types the same in antioxidants?

The strongest tea in antioxidants?

Is green tea beneficial?

What are green tea health benefits?

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………

Read more about antioxidants

Read More about Anti aging

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

Please Leave follow up questions in the comment section

Source

Keywords: Green tea catechins, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial cells, platelets, proliferation, cardiovascular disease

Sugar stands accused | Author makes case for ‘uniquely toxic’ health effects in talk at HLS

Sugar stands accused | Author makes case for ‘uniquely toxic’ health effects in talk at HLS

read th full article about sugar and aging

Science journalist and author Gary Taubes ’77 made his case that sugar consumption — which has risen dramatically over the last century — drives metabolic dysfunction that makes people sick. The hourlong talk was sponsored by the Food Law and Policy Clinic and drawn from Taubes’ new book, “The Case Against Sugar.”

A reputation for “empty calories” — devoid of vitamins and nutrients but otherwise no different from other foods containing an equal number of calories — has allowed sugar to maintain a prominent place in the U.S. diet. Taubes is dubious. First, all calories are not equal because the body metabolizes different foods in different ways. More specifically, there may be something about eating too much sugar — in particular fructose, which is metabolized in the liver — that implicates it in metabolic disease.

“I’m making an argument that sugar is uniquely toxic,” said Taubes. “It has deleterious effects on the human body that lead to obesity and diabetes.”

 

sources

harvard researchers plot early attack against alzheimers

harvard researchers plot early attack against alzheimers

Plotting the demise of Alzheimer’s
New study is major test for power of early action

The Harvard Aging Brain Study, a National Institute on Aging-backed project now in its seventh year, has shown that amyloid beta, the protein thought to cause Alzheimer’s, accumulates in the brain a decade or more before symptoms occur. That finding has given new hope to researchers struggling to move beyond a rash of high-profile Alzheimer’s failures in clinical drug trials. In February, just three months after Eli Lilly & Co. announced a trial failure, drug maker Merck & Co. halted a study. Several additional drugs are still in trials, but researchers are reconsidering their approach and wondering whether the problem is in trying to reverse, rather than prevent, dementia.

Now, the “catch it early” idea is being put to the test in a new study called A4, or Anti-Amyloid Treatment in Asymptomatic Alzheimer’s Disease, led by Sperling and the University of Southern California’s Paul Aisen. Researchers will try an anti-amyloid drug on people who show no signs of cognitive decline, but who do have abnormally high levels of amyloid beta in their brains.

 

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How old can we get? Does our cells know that? Harvard scientists

How old can we get? Does our cells know that?

 


Harvard scientists:

When it comes to aging, certain tissue types seem to lead the charge, according to Professor of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology Lee Rubin, who directs the Harvard Stem Cell Institute’s Therapeutic Screening Center. Particular tissues — nerve cells appear to be one — somehow signal to others that it’s time to age. This raises the prospect, Rubin said, that aging might be reversed by treating these key tissue categories, rather than designing individual treatments for the myriad tissue types that make up the body.

In addition to key tissues, certain chemical pathways — like insulin signaling —seem to be able to control aging, said Rubin, whose work has received backing from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, as well as private foundations. The insulin signaling pathway is a chemical chain reaction in which the hormone insulin helps the body metabolize glucose. Reducing it has been shown to greatly extend life span in flies and worms, Rubin said. Also, signaling doesn’t have to be reduced in all tissues.

Researchers have identified but not yet confirmed candidate blood factors for the rejuvenating effects. What seems not in doubt is the overall effect of the young blood on the old mouse. Interest is intense enough that a California company, Alkahest, has begun experiments giving Alzheimer’s patients plasma from young blood in hopes of improving cognition and brain function.

Even if that approach works, Rubin said, there would be practical hurdles to the widespread administration of young people’s blood plasma to older patients. But with an active compound identified, a drug could be made available to restore at least some cognitive function in Alzheimer’s patients.

 

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Balance in aging | Tai chi can help

The balance in aging, how tai chi can be helping you stay healthier while aging

To grow old well requires minimizing accidents

“Tai chi calms me down and has lowered my blood pressure,”

 

Fourth in an occasional series on how Harvard researchers are tackling the problematic issues of aging.

The morning light is pouring into the senior living community in Canton, where six residents are performing an exquisite choreography of sweeping, lyrical movements, emulating their Tai chi instructor.

“Wave hands like clouds,” urges Kerry Paulhus, leading them in the classic low-impact and slow-motion exercises of the ancient Chinese martial art. With relaxing music playing in the background, the students shift their weight from one leg to the other, turn their waists, and rotate their arms as if they indeed were clouds.

 

When class ended, Elaine Seidenberg and Fran Rogovin, both 84 and close friends for four years, were glowing.

“Tai chi calms me down and has lowered my blood pressure,” said Rogovin at Orchard Cove, a facility that is part of Hebrew SeniorLife. “It’s just amazing what Tai chi has done for me.”

 

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Exercise and Aging | Intense exercise can stop or slow down Aging

Exercise and Aging | Intense exercise can stop or slow down Aging

Before we start….. Exercise is the Most important thing we can do against aging. read more.

How exercise slows down aging?

  • Exercise Increases Brain plasticity and memory that leads to better learning
  • Exercise Increases brain BDNF
  • Exercise Boosts and improves cardiovascular system 
  • Exercise creates inflammations that makes body boost immune system
  • Exercise triggers body production of growth Hormone
  • Exercise triggers body sweat system 
  • Exercise fights obesity 
  • Triggers production of new brain cells

 

Research in progress

 

Main question on exercise-aging relation:

Before going into details of how exercise can actually improve your body we should have  and understand some questions:

 

  • Why do we HAVE TO exercise?
  • Do you know what it means that cells in our body and specially our brain Age?
  • Does our body make new cells everywhere? even in brain?
  • When does aging stats?
  • Do you know Why our body operates the way it does and how can it affect our modern lifestyle?
  • Does aging happen in brain or skin or all of our body?
  • If we are perceiving the world in our brain shouldn’t we really care about protecting it from getting old?

 

First Aging starts From 15 to 20 so take this seriously. If you are in your 20s, you are already there.

We are based on our needs. All body structure and how it functions is designed or evolved based on its needs. if we did not need a hand we would not have one or hair or nose. The structure of our body is designed to get stronger and grow under pressure of need. fear is one of the strongest tools in nature that makes animals shape the way they are.

Telomeres that are the tiny caps found on the end of DNA strands, like plastic aglets on shoelaces. They are believed to protect the DNA from damage during cell division and replication. As a cell ages, its telomeres naturally shorten and fray. our modern lifestyle expedites that things like smoking or bad foods or obesity all contribute hugely to expediting that process.

In our original lifestyle we used to run to hunt or escape, for food and staying alive and keep living. our cells and DNA knows why they are shaped the way they are. Actually exercise and intense physical activity has been an integral part of our lives in the past. and our structure is shaped based on that.

If we dont use part of our body it starts weakening to its minimum. Imaging your muscles if you dont use a specific muscle it weakens even if you are an athlete if you stop the pressure after a while you see that because your muscle is not under pressure it loosens up and weakens. after one or two years you are nothing like your old body  and that strong part is the weakest. you did nothing and that is the exact problem. doing nothing with your body for your DNA means you dont need it. so it gets rid of it. It can not get rid of it in one generation but weakens it as its possible. and eventually gets rid of it if you pass enough generations.

Remember it should be intense and/or long. The high intensity and long time is what makes the difference and makes your body to fight aging.  

High intensity exercise is a strong signal to all cells involved specially your brain to work and grow and get stronger.Also long time can do it in another way for sure a 40 min session is much better and more effective than a 10 min session. you body feels like its running out of resources and power. They are all feeling fear and that is what is running them forward. Because that is how our body made to survive if it feels loos for a long time it means aging and slow death.

 

 

Aging In our brain and memory vs exercise | Can you grow new brain cells?

The science of neurogenesis suggests it’s possible to create neurons that improve your memory and thinking skills.(source)  For example in relation of AHN and exercise in a study Named: Physical exercise increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis in male rats provided it is aerobic and sustained  done by Miriam S. Nokia, Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Finland. On Exercise and AHN it was found that: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a continuous process that contributes to a variety of adaptive behaviours, such as learning (for review, see Aimone et al. 2014). A well-demonstrated means of promoting AHN in rodents is aerobic exercise, namely running (van Praag et al. 1999). High-intensity interval training had a smaller than expected effect on AHN. Resistance training does not promote AHN.

In accordance with several previous reports on the beneficial effects of running on AHN and cognition in rodents (for a review, see Vivar et al. 2013), in our present study forced endurance training on a treadmill as well as voluntary running in a running wheel led to a higher number of immature adult-born hippocampal neurons compared with that observed in animals not engaged in aerobic exercise. Furthermore, we found that daily voluntary running on a running wheel increased AHN considerably more than 30 min of forced endurance training on a treadmill three times a week. The correlation between running distance and AHN might be explained by considering the consequences of running (in a more naturalistic setting). The further an individual travels, the more likely it is to encounter new environments and stimuli from which it must make sense rapidly.

 

 

Finally in the  Conclusion it is mentioned that: Sustained aerobic exercise increases AHN and advances this field of study in several ways. First, we tested several different forms of physical exercise to study their effects on AHN. We also took advantage of a newly developed genetically heterogeneous contrasting rat model system that we selectively bred for low and high response to aerobic training to take into account genetic variation in training responsiveness. According to our findings, anaerobic resistance training does not affect AHN in the studied animals, despite its overall positive effects on physical fitness. Second, the effects of exercise on AHN depend, at least to some extent, on sustained aerobic activity, as HIT did not have statistically significant effect on AHN. Third, the highest numbers of adult-born hippocampal neurons were observed in rats selectively bred for a high response to aerobic exercise that ran voluntarily on running wheels. Thus, for all reasons combined, AHN is highest in animals born with a tendency for a higher response to exercise training ,engaging in a large amount of voluntary aerobic activity. (source)

 

 

Why and how physical activity promotes experience-induced brain plasticity is also another important study done by  Gerd Kempermann , from Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden, German Research Foundation, Dresden, Germany.

In animals, most if not all aspects of cognition are inseparable from locomotion and physical activity. Exploration, spatial navigation, and most types of learning accessible in a rodent are based on its movement in the outer world. Search for food, shelter, and mates are physical activities, requiring mental input to be successful on both a phylogenetic and ontogenetic scale. Consequently, the fact that running induces neurogenesis will be less counterintuitive if one appreciates physical activity as a basis for cognition. An important question is, whether this association is preserved in humans. Physical activity would be an intrinsic behavior-based signal to the brain (and hippocampus) implying that the likelihood of cognitive challenge is increased. In addition, one could speculate that running long distances increases the chance to encounter new environments increasing the need for spatial orientation and memory like wild animals that need to find the way back to their safe shelter. (source)

 

 

 

Brain BDNF (Brain plasticity) and Exercise

What is brain plasticity? Neuroplasticity – or brain plasticity – is the ability of the brain to modify its connections or re-wire itself. Without this ability, any brain, not just the human brain, would be unable to develop from infancy through to adulthood or recover from brain injury.

What is  BDNF?   The BDNF gene provides instructions for making a protein found in the brain and spinal cord called brain-derived neurotrophic factor. This protein promotes the survival of nerve cells (neurons) by playing a role in the growth, maturation (differentiation), and maintenance of these cells. In the brain, the BDNF protein is active at the connections between nerve cells (synapses), where cell-to-cell communication occurs. The synapses can change and adapt over time in response to experience, a characteristic called synaptic plasticity. The BDNF protein helps regulate synaptic plasticity, which is important for learning and memory.

The BDNF protein is found in regions of the brain that control eating, drinking, and body weight; the protein likely contributes to the management of these functions.

Pushup for both your muscles and your brain.

 

How To Increase BDNF (Brain-Derived Neutrophic Factor)

Increase your BDNF , there are some specific ways this can be done. It should also be noted that many methods that increase BDNF simultaneously increase neurogenesis.

 

 

1. Intense Exercise

Yes, Intense Exercise is number 1. If you don’t exercise much, your brain may not be producing sufficient BDNF. To increase it, you’ll want to engage in an intense exercise; the greater the intensity, the more likely BDNF production will increase. It has also been suggested that the more frequently you engage in high intensity exercise, the greater the production. Most specifically, aerobic exercise within the 60% to 75% of your max heart rate should be maintained for approximately 30 minutes. Don’t expect a huge boost in BDNF after just one gym session.

(Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21282661  –  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21722657)

 

2. Intermittent Fasting or Caloric Restriction

3. Dietary modifications

4. Sunlight (Vitamin D)

5. Supplements

6. Lose weight

7. Certain drugs

8. Social Enrichment

 

 

 

How exercise and aging muscles relations are?

Basically we have 4 main types of exercise:

1.Endurance

Endurance, or aerobic, activities increase your breathing and heart rate. They keep your heart, lungs, and circulatory system healthy and improve your overall fitness. Building your endurance makes it easier to carry out many of your everyday activities.

Brisk walking or jogging
Yard work (mowing, raking, digging)
Dancing
Strength

 

2. Strength exercises

Strength exercises make your muscles stronger. Even small increases in strength can make a big difference in your ability to stay independent and carry out everyday activities, such as climbing stairs and carrying groceries. These exercises also are called “strength training” or “resistance training.”

Lifting weights
Using a resistance band
Using your own body weight
Balance

 

3. Balance exercises

Balance exercises help prevent falls, a common problem in older adults. Many lower-body strength exercises also will improve your balance.

Standing on one foot
Heel-to-toe walk
Tai Chi
Flexibility

 

4. Flexibility exercises

Flexibility exercises stretch your muscles and can help your body stay limber. Being flexible gives you more freedom of movement for other exercises as well as for your everyday activities.

Shoulder and upper arm stretch
Calf stretch
Yoga

 

Almost any amount and type of physical activity may slow aging deep within our cells, a new study finds. And middle age may be a critical time to get the process rolling, at least by one common measure of cell aging. But a recent study from Cell Metabolism discovered that certain forms of exercise may increase muscle mass and mitochondrial density, particularly with people 64 and over.Not surprisingly, resistance training increased muscle mass and strength for all subjects. And cardio HIIT (high intensity interval training) improved the age-related decline in mitochondria.

For those of us who don’t know every portion of our cells’ interiors, telomeres are tiny caps found on the end of DNA strands, like plastic aglets on shoelaces. They are believed to protect the DNA from damage during cell division and replication. As a cell ages, its telomeres naturally shorten and fray. But the process can be accelerated by obesity, smoking, insomnia, diabetes and other aspects of health and lifestyle as we have talked about in all of our articles. In those cases, the affected cells age prematurely.

Exercise may slow the fraying of telomeres. Past studies have found, for instance, that master athletes typically have longer telomeres than sedentary people of the same age, as do older women who frequently walk or engage in other fairly moderate exercise.

But those studies were relatively narrow, focusing mostly on elderly people who ran or walked. It remained unclear whether people of different ages who engaged in a variety of exercises would likewise show effects on their telomeres.

So for the new study, which was published this month in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, researchers from the University of Mississippi and University of California, San Francisco, decided to look more broadly at the interactions of exercise and telomeres among a wide swath of Americans.

 

 

Exercise And Ageing, Exercise Is The Key To Keep Your Body Young

Ageing is a natural part of life. Face it. As soon as you hit your twenties, you notice changes in your body that are clear signs of ageing. However, people age differently and you want to be one of those people who looks and feels younger than they actually are. You want to be as healthy and strong as you possibly can be so you can still enjoy life even in your later years.

Let’s take a look at how exercise can help you keep your body young.

As you get older, your heart muscle becomes less efficient. It works harder to pump the same amount of blood to your organs. Blood vessels also tend to lose their elasticity and hardened fatty deposits may make the supply of blood even harder. This can be avoided by eating a healthy diet with limited saturated fats, a lot of lean protein and vegetables. Consistent daily exercise will also go a long way in delaying the onset of such problems.

 

Exercise and Aging

 

One of the features of a young body is its ability to move fluidly. As you age, your bones decrease in size and density. It is even said that you lose a total of 2 inches as you grow older. Less dense bones make them prone to fracture. Muscles, joints and tendons also generally lose strength and flexibility as you get older. When you regularly exercise, your body gets used to physical activity and tries to keep up. Include weight training in your exercise regiment to keep your bones strong and your joints fluid. Proper diet will also go a long way to helping with this.

 

Exercise and Aging

 

 

Exercise the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Exercise causes a beneficial response in the brain and an increase of BDFN, which is a trophic factor which is linked to cognitive improvement and the alleviation of anxiety and depression. The levels of this protein have been found to increase after exercise. You may already have experienced this before when in an anxious state. Exercise seems to alleviate the anxiety and make you have clearer thoughts. As you get older, your mental sharpness decreases slowly. You can delay this through regular exercise from a young age.

As you get older, maintaining a healthy weight or losing weight becomes even more difficult. Given that most people tend to go into a sedentary lifestyle as they age, it may seem almost impossible. Your metabolism also slows down, meaning that you burn fewer calories. The best remedy for this is maintaining a consistent workout schedule consisting of strength and cardio workouts at least 3 times a week. This ill help you increase your ratio of lean muscle to fat. Being overweight naturally, makes you look and feel older than you actually are. You may feel like you are hurling around a heavy body everywhere you go.

Exercise and nutrition go hand in hand when considering slowing down the ageing process. One cannot do without the other.

 

 

 

Online Sources for exercise and aging:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1113/JP271552/full

https://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/10/28/does-exercise-slow-the-aging-process/

mentalhealthdaily.com/2015/03/30/8-ways-to-increase-bdnf-levels-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor/

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Papers and references for exercise and aging:

Afzalpour ME, Chadorneshin HT, Foadoddini M & Eivari HA (2015). Comparing interval and continuous exercise training regimens on neurotrophic factors in rat brain. Physiol Behav 147, 78–83.

Aimone JB, Li Y, Lee SW, Clemenson GD, Deng W & Gage FH (2014). Regulation and function of adult neurogenesis: from genes to cognition. Physiol Rev 94, 991–1026.

Allen DM, van Praag H, Ray J, Weaver Z, Winrow CJ, Carter TA, Braquet R, Harrington E, Ried T, Brown KD, Gage FH & Barlow C (2001). Ataxia telangiectasia mutated is essential during adult neurogenesis. Genes Dev 15, 554–566.

Bednarczyk MR, Aumont A, Decary S, Bergeron R & Fernandes KJ (2009). Prolonged voluntary wheel-running stimulates neural precursors in the hippocampus and forebrain of adult CD1 mice. Hippocampus 19, 913–927.

Biedermann SV, Fuss J, Steinle J, Auer MK, Dormann C, Falfán-Melgoza C, Ende G, Gass P & Weber-Fahr W (2014). The hippocampus and exercise: histological correlates of MR-detected volume changes. Brain Struct Funct doi: 10.1007/s00429-014-0976-5

Bouchard C, Blair SN, Church TS, Earnest CP, Hagberg JM, Hakkinen K, Jenkins NT, Karavirta L, Kraus WE, Leon AS, Rao DC, Sarzynski MA, Skinner JS, Slentz CA & Rankinen T (2012). Adverse metabolic response to regular exercise: is it a rare or common occurrence? PLoS One 7, e37887.

Bouchard C & Rankinen T (2001). Individual differences in response to regular physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33, S446–S451; discussion S452–S453.

Cameron HA & McKay RD (2001). Adult neurogenesis produces a large pool of new granule cells in the dentate gyrus. J Comp Neurol 435, 406–417.

Carro E, Nuñez A, Busiguina S & Torres-Aleman I (2000). Circulating insulin-like growth factor I mediates effects of exercise on the brain. J Neurosci 20, 2926–2933.

Cassilhas RC, Lee KS, Fernandes J, Oliveira MG, Tufik S, Meeusen R & de Mello MT (2012a). Spatial memory is improved by aerobic and resistance exercise through divergent molecular mechanisms. Neuroscience 202, 309–317.

Cassilhas RC, Lee KS, Venancio DP, Oliveira MG, Tufik S & de Mello MT (2012b). Resistance exercise improves hippocampus-dependent memory. Braz J Med Biol Res 45, 1215–1220.

Castilla-Ortega E, Rosell-Valle C, Pedraza C, Rodríguez de Fonseca F, Estivill-Torrús G & Santin LJ (2014). Voluntary exercise followed by chronic stress strikingly increases mature adult-born hippocampal neurons and prevents stress-induced deficits in ‘what–when–where’ memory. Neurobiol Learn Mem 109, 62–73.

Chae CH, Jung SL, An SH, Park BY, Kim TW, Wang SW, Kim JH, Lee HC & Kim HT (2014). Swimming exercise stimulates neuro-genesis in the subventricular zone via increase in synapsin I and nerve growth factor levels. Biol Sport 31, 309–314.

Clelland CD, Choi M, Romberg C, Clemenson GD Jr, Fragniere A, Tyers P, Jessberger S, Saksida LM, Barker RA, Gage FH & Bussey TJ (2009). A functional role for adult hippocampal neurogenesis in spatial pattern separation. Science 325, 210–213.

Creer DJ, Romberg C, Saksida LM, van Praag H & Bussey TJ (2010). Running enhances spatial pattern separation in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107, 2367–2372.

Dalla C, Papachristos EB, Whetstone AS & Shors TJ (2009). Female rats learn trace memories better than male rats and consequently retain a greater proportion of new neurons in their hippocampi. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106, 2927–2932.

Erickson KI, Prakash RS, Voss MW, Chaddock L, Hu L, Morris KS, White SM, Wójcicki TR, McAuley E & Kramer AF (2009). Aerobic fitness is associated with hippocampal volume in elderly humans. Hippocampus 19, 1030–1039.

Erickson KI, Voss MW, Prakash RS, Basak C, Szabo A, Chaddock L, Kim JS, Heo S, Alves H, White SM, Wojcicki TR, Mailey E, Vieira VJ, Martin SA, Pence BD, Woods JA, McAuley E & Kramer AF (2011). Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108, 3017–3022.

Fardell JE, Vardy J, Shah JD & Johnston IN (2012). Cognitive impairments caused by oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy are ameliorated by physical activity. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 220, 183–193.

Farmer J, Zhao X, van Praag H, Wodtke K, Gage FH & Christie BR (2004). Effects of voluntary exercise on synaptic plasticity and gene expression in the dentate gyrus of adult male Sprague–Dawley rats in vivo. Neuroscience 124, 71–79.

Fischer TJ, Walker TL, Overall RW, Brandt MD & Kempermann G (2014). Acute effects of wheel running on adult hippocampal precursor cells in mice are not caused by changes in cell cycle length or S phase length. Front Neurosci 8, 314.

Gibala MJ, Little JP, Macdonald MJ & Hawley JA (2012). Physiological adaptations to low-volume, high-intensity interval training in health and disease. J Physiol 590, 1077–1084.

Gould E, Beylin A, Tanapat P, Reeves A & Shors TJ (1999). Learning enhances adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal formation. Nat Neurosci 2, 260–265.

Haram PM, Kemi OJ, Lee SJ, Bendheim MØ, Al-Share QY, Waldum HL, Gilligan LJ, Koch LG, Britton SL, Najjar SM & Wisløff U (2009). Aerobic interval training vs. continuous moderate exercise in the metabolic syndrome of rats artificially selected for low aerobic capacity. Cardiovasc Res 81, 723–732.

Hauser T, Klaus F, Lipp HP & Amrein I (2009). No effect of running and laboratory housing on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in wild caught long-tailed wood mouse. BMC Neurosci 10, 43.

Hornberger TA Jr & Farrar RP (2004). Physiological hypertrophy of the FHL muscle following 8 weeks of progressive resistance exercise in the rat. Can J Appl Physiol 29, 16–31.

Inoue K, Okamoto M, Shibato J, Lee MC, Matsui T, Rakwal R & Soya H (2015). Long-term mild, rather than intense, exercise enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis and greatly changes the transcriptomic profile of the hippocampus. PLoS One 10, e0128720.

Johnson RA, Rhodes JS, Jeffrey SL, Garland T Jr & Mitchell GS (2003). Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor but not neurotrophin-3 increases more in mice selected for increased voluntary wheel running. Neuroscience 121, 1–7.

Koch LG & Britton SL (2008). Aerobic metabolism underlies complexity and capacity. J Physiol 586, 83–95.

Koch LG & Britton SL (2001). Artificial selection for intrinsic aerobic endurance running capacity in rats. Physiol Genomics 5, 45–52.
PubMed | Web of Science® Times Cited: 177 | Check UMLinks for fulltext
Koch LG, Pollott GE & Britton SL (2013). Selectively bred rat model system for low and high response to exercise training. Physiol Genomics 45, 606–614.

Lee MC, Inoue K, Okamoto M, Liu YF, Matsui T, Yook JS & Soya H (2013). Voluntary resistance running induces increased hippocampal neurogenesis in rats comparable to load-free running. Neurosci Lett 537, 6–10.

Lessard SJ, Rivas DA, Alves-Wagner AB, Hirshman MF, Gallagher IJ, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Atkins R, Greenhaff PL, Qi NR, Gustafsson T, Fielding RA, Timmons JA, Britton SL, Koch LG & Goodyear LJ (2013). Resistance to aerobic exercise training causes metabolic dysfunction and reveals novel exercise-regulated signaling networks. Diabetes 62, 2717–2727.

Leuner B, Glasper ER & Gould E (2010). Sexual experience promotes adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus despite an initial elevation in stress hormones. PLoS One 5, e11597.

Li Y, Luikart BW, Birnbaum S, Chen J, Kwon CH, Kernie SG, Bassel-Duby R & Parada LF (2008). TrkB regulates hippocampal neurogenesis and governs sensitivity to antidepressive treatment. Neuron 59, 399–412.

Lucassen PJ, Oomen CA, Naninck EF, Fitzsimons CP, van Dam AM, Czeh B & Korosi A (2015). Regulation of adult neurogenesis and plasticity by (early) stress, glucocorticoids, and inflammation. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 7, a021303.

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