Vitamin E, Strong everyday antioxidant we have to have in our diet

Research in progress                                       

Other Names of Vitamin E:

Acétate d’Alpha Tocophérol, Acétate d’Alpha Tocophéryl, Acétate de D-Alpha-Tocophéryl, Acétate de DL-Alpha-Tocophéryl, Acétate de Tocophérol, Acétate de Tocophéryl, Acétate de Vitamine E, All Rac-Alpha-Tocopherol, All-Rac-Alpha-Tocophérol, Alpha-Tocophérol, Alpha Tocopherol Acetate, Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate

You can find in this article:

  • Recommended Intakes
  • Sources of Vitamin E
  • Vitamin E Intakes and Status
  • Vitamin E Deficiency
  • Vitamin E and Health
  • Health Risks from Excessive Vitamin E
  • Interactions with Medications
  • Vitamin E and Healthful Diets

Introduction to vitamin E as and antioxidant

Vitamin E is a vitamin that dissolves in fat. Vitamin E is found in many foods including vegetable oils, cereals, meat, poultry and so on. It is also available as a supplement. Vitamin E is not actually only one type of molecule. it generally refers to group of compounds that include both tocopherols and tocotrienols. γ-tocopherol is the most common form found in supplements. Vitamin E is known to have a role as an antioxidant in the body. It also helps to prevent free radical damage to specific fats in the body that are critical for your health.
Vitamin E deficiency, which is rare, but can happen in people with some genetic disorders and in premature infants. it happens with poor nutrition and/or a problem with absorption of fats.The RDA for vitamin E is 30 International Units (IU) per day for DL and 22 IU/day for D alpha tocopherol. 
The NIH’s RDA and Adequate Intake (AI):
Infants 0-6 months, 4 mg/day (6 IU/day)
Infants 7-12 months 5 mg/day (7.5 IU/day)
children 1-3 years, 6 mg/day (9 IU/day)
children 4-8 years, 7 mg/day (10.4 IU/day)
children 9-13 years, 11 mg/day (16.4 IU/day)

Vitamin E is known for :

Diseases and issues in  body that Vitamin e is usually associated with some improvements in them. Because of antioxidant effects of  Vitamin E, it is known to be used for the following diseases:
Diabetes, preventing cancer, particularly lung and oral cancer in smokers, colorectal cancer and polyps; and gastric, prostate, and pancreatic cancer. Vitamin E is also known to be used for diseases of the brain and nervous system including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, restless leg syndrome, and for epilepsy. Also Huntington’s chorea and  disorders in nerves and muscles. Some cases used for preventing late pregnancy due to high blood pressure (pre-eclampsia), premenstrual syndrome (PMS), painful periods, menopausal syndrome, hot flashes associated with breast cancer. Vitamin E is used to reduce the side effects of drugs for some issues like dialysis and radiation. 

vitamin-e Unique health benefits & Antioxidant effects

Different types of vitamin E:

Vitamin E has different forms in terms of molecular structure, In reality, vitamin E comes in eight different forms, mostly found in plants. The eight E’s are divided into two main classes. The tocopherols consist of 4 types of vitamin E, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The differ with some slight chemical differences (location and number of methyl groups) on its core structure. Alpha, beta, gamma and delta tocotrienols are more permeable to cell membranes because of their unsaturated bonds. This chemical difference imparts certain advantages over the less permeable tocopherols.
The most potent antioxidant of the group is alpha tocopherol. Scientists believe that we have to try to keep high the levels of alpha tocopherol in body and we have developed mechanisms to retain it. So the supplements almost always contain alpha tocopherol vitamin E.

Get Vitamin E for :

Generally vitamin e is known  to be effective in many cases like:
  1. Balances Cholesterol
  2. Fights Free Radicals and Prevents Disease Development
  3. Repairs Damaged Skin
  4. Thickens Hair
  5. Helps PMS Symptoms
  6. Balances Hormones
  7. Improves Vision
  8. Helps People with Alzheimer’s Disease
  9. Improves Effects of Medical Treatments
  10. Improves Physical Endurance and Muscle Strength
And a longer more detailed list would be this:
  • Cancer

  • Anti-Aging

  • Symptoms of ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)

  • Weight Loss

  • Asthma

  • Depression

  • Diabetes

  • Cardiovascular

  • Eye Disorders AMD

  • Immune system

  • Inflammatory and pain

  • Neuro-degenerative diseases

  • Cognition decline

  • Autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis)

  • Joint health

  • Damaging nerves system

  • Alzheimer’s disease

  • High cholesterol (LDL bad cholesterol)

  • Healthier Arteries

  • Weight-loss (Helps you lose weight)

  • Parkinson’s disease

  • Movement disorder (ataxia) associated with vitamin E deficiency

  • Alzheimer’s disease. Vitamin E might slow down the worsening of memory loss 

  • Anemia

  • Blood disorder (beta-thalassemia)

  • Bladder cancer. Taking 200 IU of vitamin E by mouth for more than 10 years

  • Chemotherapy-related nerve damage

  • Dementia

  • Painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea)

  • Movement and coordination disorder called dyspraxia

  • Kidney problems in children (glomerulosclerosis)

  • An inherited disorder called G6PD deficiency

  • Healing a type of skin sore called granuloma annulare

  • Huntington’s disease. Natural vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocopherol)

  • Male infertility. Taking vitamin E by mouth improves pregnancy

  • Bleeding within the skull.

  • Bleeding within the ventricular system of the brain

  • Nitrate tolerance

  • Liver disease called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

  • Parkinson’s disease.

  • Laser eye surgery (photoreactive keratectomy).

  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

  • Physical performance.

  • Fibrosis caused by radiation.

  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

  • An eye disease in newborns called retinopathy of prematurity.

  • Sunburn.

  • Movement disorder (tardive dyskinesia).

  • Swelling in the middle layer of the eye (uveitis).

vitamin-e Unique health benefits & Antioxidant effects Fresh spinach


How to get Vitamin E naturally:

vitamin-e Unique health benefits & Antioxidant effects

Selected Food Sources of Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol) 

Food Milligrams (mg)
per serving
Percent DV*
Wheat germ oil, 1 tablespoon 20.3 100
Sunflower seeds, dry roasted, 1 ounce 7.4 37
Almonds, dry roasted, 1 ounce 6.8 34
Sunflower oil, 1 tablespoon 5.6 28
Safflower oil, 1 tablespoon 4.6 25
Hazelnuts, dry roasted, 1 ounce 4.3 22
Peanut butter, 2 tablespoons 2.9 15
Peanuts, dry roasted, 1 ounce 2.2 11
Corn oil, 1 tablespoon 1.9 10
Spinach, boiled, ½ cup 1.9 10
Broccoli, chopped, boiled, ½ cup 1.2 6
Soybean oil, 1 tablespoon 1.1 6
Kiwifruit, 1 medium 1.1 6
Mango, sliced, ½ cup 0.7 4
Tomato, raw, 1 medium 0.7 4
Spinach, raw, 1 cup 0.6 3

Vitamin E Side Effects

For most healthy people it is safe to stay on the recommended daily dosage but Vitamin E in some specific situations can cause some issues:
  • heart failure in people that have diabetes
  • Bleeding disorders
  • head, neck, and prostate cancer will return
  • increasing bleeding
Useful Website sources and articles on Vitamin E and its benefits:

Useful Website sources and articles on Vitamin E and its benefits:


Papers and articles for reading and references about Vitamin E:

Papers and articles for reading and references about Vitamin E:

Traber MG. Vitamin E. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins R, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 10th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006;396-411.
Traber MG. Vitamin E regulatory mechanisms. Annu Rev Nutr 2007;27:347-62. [PubMed abstract]
Sen CK, Khanna S, Roy S. Tocotrienols: vitamin E beyond tocopherols. Life Sci 2006;78:2088-98. [PubMed abstract]
Dietrich M, Traber MG, Jacques PF, Cross CE, Hu Y, Block G. Does γ-tocopherol play a role in the primary prevention of heart disease and cancer? A review. Am J Coll Nutr 2006;25:292-9. [PubMed abstract]
Verhagen H, Buijsse B, Jansen E, Bueno-de-Mesquita B. The state of antioxidant affairs. Nutr Today 2006;41:244-50.
Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoidsexternal link disclaimer. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.
Food and Nutrition Board. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 7th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences; 1968.
Food and Drug Administration. Food labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts labels. Federal Register 2016;81:33741-999.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2011. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 24. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, link disclaimer.
Ford ES, Ajani UA, Mokdad AH. Brief communication: the prevalence of high intake of vitamin E from the use of supplements among U.S. adults. Ann Intern Med 2005;143:116-20. [PubMed abstract]
Gao X, Wilde PE, Lichtenstein AH, Bermudez OI, Tucker KL. The maximal amount of dietary á-tocopherol intake in U.S. adults (NHANES 2001-2002). J Nutr 2006;136:1021-6. [PubMed abstract]
Interagency Board for Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research. Third Report on Nutrition Monitoring in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995.
Brion LP, Bell EF, Raghuveer TS. Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev;4:CD003665. [PubMed abstract]
Kowdley KV, Mason JB, Meydani SN, Cornwall S, Grand RJ. Vitamin E deficiency and impaired cellular immunity related to intestinal fat malabsorption. Gastroenterology 1992;102:2139-42. [PubMed abstract]
Tanyel MC, Mancano LD. Neurologic findings in vitamin E deficiency. Am Fam Physician 1997;55:197-201. [PubMed abstract]
Cavalier L, Ouahchi K, Kayden H, Donato S, Reutenaucer L, Mandel JL, et al. Ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency: heterogeneity of mutations and phenotypic variability in a large number of families. Am J Hum Genet 1998;62:301-10. [PubMed abstract]
Glynn RJ, Ridker PM, Goldhaber SZ, Zee RY, Buring JE. Effects of random allocation to vitamin E supplementation on the occurrence of venous thromboembolism: report from the Women’s Health Study. Circulation 2007;116:1497-1503. [PubMed abstract]
Stampfer MJ, Hennekens CH, Manson JE, Colditz GA, Rosner B, Willett WC. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1444-9. [PubMed abstract]
Knekt P, Reunanen A, Jarvinen R, Seppanen R, Heliovaara M, Aromaa A. Antioxidant vitamin intake and coronary mortality in a longitudinal population study. Am J Epidemiol 1994;139:1180-9. [PubMed abstract]
Traber MG. Heart disease and single-vitamin supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:293S-9S. [PubMed abstract]
Jialal I, Devaraj S. Vitamin E supplementation and cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med 2000;342:154-60. [PubMed abstract]
Lonn E, Bosch J, Yusuf S, Sheridan P, Pogue J, Arnold JM, et al.; HOPE and HOPE-TOO Trial Investigators. Effects of long-term vitamin E supplementation on cardiovascular events and cancer: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2005;293:1338-47. [PubMed abstract]
Brown BG, Crowley J. Is there any hope for vitamin E? JAMA 2005;293:1387-90. [PubMed abstract]
Waters DD, Alderman EL, Hsia J, Howard BV, Cobb FR, Rogers WJ, et al. Effects of hormone replacement therapy and antioxidant vitamin supplements on coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc 2002;288:2432-40. [PubMed abstract]
Lee I-M, Cook NR, Gaziano JM, Gordon D, Ridker PM, Manson JE, et al. Vitamin E in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: the Women’s Health Study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2005;294:56-65. [PubMed abstract]
Sesso HD, Buring JE, Christen WG, Kurth T, Belanger C, MacFadyen J, et al. Vitamins E and C in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in men: the Physicians’ Health Study II randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2008;300:2123-33. [PubMed abstract]
Blumberg JB, Frei B. Why clinical trials of vitamin E and cardiovascular diseases may be fatally flawed. Commentary on “The relationship between dose of vitamin E and suppression of oxidative stress in humans.” Free Radic Biol Med 2007;43:1374-6. [PubMed abstract]
Weitberg AB, Corvese D. Effect of vitamin E and beta-carotene on DNA strand breakage induced by tobacco-specific nitrosamines and stimulated human phagocytes. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 1997;16:11-4. [PubMed abstract]
Kirsh VA, Hayes RB, Mayne ST, Chatterjee N, Subar AF, Dixon LB, et al. Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, β-carotene, and vitamin C intakes and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006;98:245-54. [PubMed abstract]
Heinonen OP, Albanes D, Virtamo J, Taylor PR, Huttunen JK, Hartman AM, Haapakoski J, Malila N, Rautalahti M, Ripatti S, Mäenpää H, Teerenhovi L, Koss L, Virolainen M, Edwards BK. Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998 Mar 18;90(6):440-6. [PubMed abstract]
Klein EA, Thompson Jr. IM, Tangen CM, Crowley JJ, Lucia MS, Goodman PJ, et al. Vitamin E and the risk of prostate cancer: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA 2011;306:1549-1556. [PubMed abstract]
Bostick RM, Potter JD, McKenzie DR, Sellers TA, Kushi LH, Steinmetz KA, et al. Reduced risk of colon cancer with high intakes of vitamin E: the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Cancer Res 1993;15:4230-17. [PubMed abstract]
Wu K, Willett WC, Chan JM, Fuchs CS, Colditz GA, Rimm EB, et al. A prospective study on supplemental vitamin E intake and risk of colon cancer in women and men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002;11:1298-304. [PubMed abstract]
Graham S, Sielezny M, Marshall J, Priore R, Freudenheim J, Brasure J, et al. Diet in the epidemiology of postmenopausal breast cancer in the New York State Cohort. Am J Epidemiol 1992;136:3127-37. [PubMed abstract]
Jacobs EJ, Henion AK, Briggs PJ, Connell CJ, McCullough ML, Jonas CR, et al. Vitamin C and vitamin E supplement use and bladder cancer mortality in a large cohort of US men and women. Am J Epidemiol 2002;156:1002-10. [PubMed abstract]
Chong EW-T, Wong TY, Kreis AJ, Simpson JA, Guymer RH. Dietary antioxidants and primary prevention of age-related macular degeneration: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2007;335:755. [PubMed abstract]
Evans J. Primary prevention of age related macular degeneration. BMJ 2007;335:729. [PubMed abstract]
Taylor HR, Tikellis G, Robman LD, McCarty CA, McNeil JJ. Vitamin E supplementation and macular degeneration: randomized controlled trial. BMJ 2002;325:11. [PubMed abstract]
Teikari JM, Virtamo J, Rautalahti M, Palmgren J, Liesto K, Heinonen OP. Long-term supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene and age-related cataract. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 1997;75:634-40. [PubMed abstract]
Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss: AREDS report no. 8. Arch Ophthalmol 2001;119:1417-36. [PubMed abstract]
The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) Research Group. Lutein + zeaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids for age-related macular degeneration: the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2013;309:2005-15. [PubMed abstract]
Leske MC, Chylack LT Jr, He Q, Wu SY, Schoenfeld E, Friend J, et al. Antioxidant vitamins and nuclear opacities: the longitudinal study of cataract. Ophthalmology 1998;105:831-6. [PubMed abstract]
Jacques PF, Taylor A, Moeller S, Hankinson SE, Rogers G, Tung W, et al. Long-term nutrient intake and 5-year change in nuclear lens opacities. Arch Ophthalmol 2005;123:517-26. [PubMed abstract]
Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E and beta carotene for age-related cataract and vision loss: AREDS report no. 9. Arch Opthalmol 2001;119:1439-52. [PubMed abstract]
The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) Research Group. Lutein/zeaxanthin for the treatment of age-related cataract: AREDS2 randomized trial report no. 4. JAMA Ophthalmol 2013. Online May 5. [PubMed abstract]
Sano M, Ernesto C, Thomas RG, Klauber MR, Schafer K, Grundman M, et al. A controlled trial of selegiline, alpha-tocopherol, or both as treatment for Alzehimer’s disease. N Engl J Med 1997;336:1216-22. [PubMed abstract]
Morris MC, Evand DA, Bienias JL, Tangney CC, Wilson RS. Vitamin E and cognitive decline in older persons. Arch Neurol 2002;59:1125-32. [PubMed abstract]
Kang JH, Cook N, Manson J, Buring J, Grodstein F. A randomized trial of vitamin E supplementation and cognitive function in women. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:2462-8. [PubMed abstract]
Petersen RC, Thomas RG, Grundman M, Bennett D, Doody R, Ferris S, et al. Vitamin E and donepezil for the treatment of mild cognitive impairment. N Engl J Med 2005;352:2379-88. [PubMed abstract]
Espeland MA. Preventing cognitive decline in usual aging. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:2433-4. [PubMed abstract]
Isaac MGEKN, Quinn R, Tabet N. Vitamin E for Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment (review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;(3):CD002854. [PubMed abstract]
Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. N Engl J Med 1994;330:1029-35. [PubMed abstract]
Miller ER 3rd, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, Riemersma RA, Appel LJ, Guallar E. Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med 2005;142:37-46. [PubMed abstract]
Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gluud LL, Simonetti RG, Gluud C. Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2007;297:842-57. [PubMed abstract]
Comments and responses: high dosage vitamin E supplementation and all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med 2005;143:150-7.
Greenberg ER. Vitamin E supplements: good in theory, but is the theory good? Ann Intern Med 2005;142:75-6. [PubMed abstract]
Hathcock JN, Azzi A, Blumberg J, Bray T, Dickinson A, Frei B, et al. Vitamins E and C are safe across a broad range of intakes. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:367-45. [PubMed abstract]
Various authors. Letters: antioxidant supplements and mortality. JAMA 2007;298:400-3.
Huang HY, Caballero B, Chang S, Alberg A, Semba R, Schneyer C, et al. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements and Prevention of Chronic Diseaseexternal link disclaimer. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 139. (Prepared by The Johns Hopkins University Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-02-0018). AHRQ Publication No. 06-E012. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. May 2008.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Databaseexternal link disclaimer. Vitamin E.
Brown BG, Zhao X-Q, Chait A, Fisher LD, Cheung MC, Morse JS, et al. Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1583-92. [PubMed abstract]